Mark Sagoff
"Animal Liberation and Environmental Ethics: Bad Marriage, Quick Divorce"

Sagoff's argument for why Animal Activists can't be Environmentalists and vice-versa:


Differences between Animal Activists and Environmentalists

Animal Activists
Animal equality and animal rights Ecological integrity
Singer/Regan Leopold
Humanitarian ethics of concern for animal suffering and death

Ecological ethics/environmental ethic: Respect for and admiration for functioning of natural systems

Extent of moral standing: Stops at mammals (or higher animals) Moral standing for: Animals, plants, ecosystems, species, natural processes, nature, Earth herself

Individualism (happiness and welfare of individual animals-e.g., this California Condor)

Holism (nonindividuals like populations, species and ecosystems are what is important)
Anti-hunting Pro-hunting (if helps prevent degraded ecosystems)
Focus on domestic animals Focus on wild animals
Cows and grizzly bears are equal Cows and grizzly bears are not equal
Plentiful species like deer (as important as endangered species) Endangered species like red wolves (are more important)
Animal suffering and death an evil Animal suffering and death not an evil as a fundamental part of a valuable nature
So predation is a bad thing? Oppose predator restoration? Predation is good; we need to reintroduce predators
Favor contraceptive care for wild animals? Oppose contraceptive care as would undermine nature's integrity